Anatomical Alterations of the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems

The different types of training methods have various ways of adaptation relevant to improve the athletic performance of the trainee. The following will appraise how these changes and adaptations are paving the way to a higher level of performance in an athlete. The cardiovascular system consisting of a pair of pumps, the heart, and of various vessels — arteries, veins, and capillaries — through which the blood, propelled by the heart, brings oxygen and other nutrients to cells in all parts of the body and carries away waste (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1982). Exercise in human body normally serves for the following functions. such as a) Transports hormones b) Delivers nutrients and fuel to active tissues c) Transports heat (a by-product of activity) from the core to the skin d) Oxygenates blood by returning it to the lungs e) Delivers oxygen to working muscles. The respiratory system, on the other hand, is responsible for the gas exchange from the time oxygen enters the organism until carbon dioxide and water re given off. The organs used in breathing-nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs—are called the respiratory system. (Britannica Junior Encyclopaedia, 1980).
The oxygen demand in the muscle is increased by exercise. At the same time, more waste is created due to increased metabolic processes. Body temperature rises with more nutrients. To perform as efficiently as possible the cardiovascular system must regulate these changes and meet the body’s increasing demands (http://www.sport-fitness-advisor.com). The muscle tissues at that time would be able to extract more oxygen from arterial blood.
&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Consequently, the heart’s mass and volume increase and cardiac muscle undergo the process called hypertrophy (the enlargement of a muscle belly due to an increase in the size of muscle cells – particularly the muscle’s fibres).&nbsp.