Application of Management Theory and Leadership Skills in Practice

Leadership theories are diverse in their nature explaining and establishing different viewpoints on the problem of leadership skills and effective management. Following Boehnke and Bontis (2001) the transforming leader recognizes an existing need for a potential follower but then moves forward seeking to arouse and satisfy higher needs (in terms of Maslow’s need hierarchy) to engage the full person of the follower. The followers themselves may be converted into leaders. The main disadvantage is that the transforming leader is seen as a benevolent father who remains friendly and treats the employee as a child and a less experienced person(Barker 2001). The leader provides a model of integrity and fairness with people as well as being one who set clear and high standards of performance (Segriovanni &amp. Glickman 2006). Other characteristics less frequently mentioned include: seeking others’ highest good, treating others with dignity, showing respect for others and genuine interest in them. A transformational leader can be seen to be firm and to reprimand when necessary, to give autonomy to followers, to encourage self-development of followers, to be participative, to be willing to teach followers, and to mix easily socially with followers (Armandi et al 2003).
The advantages of participative (democratic) leadership are that it allows greater independence to employees and values individual culture and uniqueness of everyone. Good administration is the hallmark of good management and the proper and efficient use of resources. Managers become leaders when their personality and character, their knowledge and functional skills of leadership are recognized and accepted by the others involved. The main disadvantage is the absence of strong power and influence upon employees. Situational leadership allows organizations to overcome current problems and respond effectively to coming changes. Leadership may be exercised from any direction in the space, or any value location, depending upon the dynamic constellation of the pattern of unification polarization in the group at a particular time, thus, depending upon one’s value system, leadership at a given time may be malevolent as well as benevolent. Servant leadership is marked by a great responsibility towards society and he follows, the organization and customer. A person may be appointed or elected as leader with the expectation that he or she will lead in a particular direction or directions of behavior and value realization, but may find that to hold leadership under changing conditions of polarization and unification, he or she must deviate from the expected directions, at times even need to controvert them (Hoyle and Wilmore 2002). In contrast to other theories, the servant leader does not respond effectively to economic and social changes limited by social responsibility and ethical issues.
All the theories mentioned above, transformational and participative (democratic), servant and situational leadership, can be effectively used Tesco and its management.&nbsp.