Aristolochic Acid

‘Aristolochic acid is a rodent carcinogen found in the Aristolochia and Asarum species, both in the Aristolochiaceae family of plants such as the Aristolochia fangchi’ [1].
Botanicals Known or Suspected to Contain Aristolochic Acid [4]
Botanical Name*
Common or Other Names
Aristolochia spp.
Guan mu tong
Guang mu tong
Aristolochia acuminata Lam.
Syn. Aristolochia tagala Champ.
Oval leaf Dutchman’s pipe
Aristolochia argentina Griseb.
Aristolochia baetica Linn.
Syn. Aristolochia bracteolata Lam.
Aristolochia bracteata Retz.
Aristolochia chilensis Bridges in Lindl.
Aristolochia cinnabarina C.Y. Cheng &amp. J.L. Wu
Aristolochia clematitis L.
Aristolochia contorta Bunge
Ma dou ling
Tian xian teng
Aristolochia cymbifera Mart. &amp. Zucc.
Mil homens
Aristolochia debilis Siebold &amp. Zucc.
Syn. Aristolochia longa Thunb.
Syn. Aristolochia recurvilabra Hance
Syn. Aristolochia sinarum Lindl.
Ma dou ling
Tian xian teng
Qing mu xiang Sei-mokkou (Japanese)
Long birthwort
Aristolochia elegans Mast.
Syn. Aristolochia hassleriana Chodat
Aristolochia esperanzae Kuntze
Aristolochia fangchi Y.C. Wu ex L.D. Chow &amp. S.M. Hwang
Guang fang ji
Fang ji
Mokuboi (Japanese)
Kwangbanggi (Korean)
Fang chi
Kou-boui (Japanese)
Aristolochia fimbriata Cham.
Aristolochia indica L.
Indian birthwort
Aristolochia kaempferi Willd.
Syn. Aristolochia chrysops (Stapf) E.H. Wilson ex Rehder
Syn. Aristolochia feddei H. Lv.
Syn. Aristolochia heterophylla Hemsl.
Syn. Aristolochia mollis Dunn
Syn. Aristolochia setchuenensis Franch.
Syn. Aristolochia shimadai Hayata
Syn. Aristolochia thibetica Franch.
Syn. Isotrema chrysops Stapf
Syn. Isotrema heterophylla (Hemsl.) Stapf
Syn. Isotrema lasiops Stapf
Yellowmouth Dutchman’s…
Aristolochic acid (AA) is a known genotoxic mutagen and is generally derived from plant extracts and is formed from aristolochic acid I (AAI) and aristolochic acid II (AAII), [20, 22, 17, 25] it is potentially carcinogenic to most rodent species [12, 13, 5, 25] and in humans [6, 15, 25]. The formation of DNA adducts by Aristolochic acid (AA) gives it it’s mutagenic and carcinogenic properties, due to the process of reductive metabolic activation where both types of AA’s (AA I and AA II) react with the nucleic acids adenine and guanine [18, 19, 25].
Specimen exists at New York Botanical Gardens. Tropicos does not list this species as a synonym for any Thottea species. Kew Gardens Herbarium does not recognize the genera Bragantia. Until additional information is obtained we will use the name as cited in J. Nat. Products 45:657-666 (1982)
Using a laboratory-made pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method set at the dynamic mode, Aristolochic acids I and II can be extracted from medicinal plants. If the intended extracts will be extracted from medicinal plants, spiking (addition of enzymes or other catalytic substances) will not be done, but ultrasonic and Sohxlet extraction will both be done to determine the accuracy of the techniques.