CHAPTER 2MEASURING AND EXPLAINING CRIMELearning ObjectivesAfter reading this chapter, students should: Identify the six different main categories of crime. Identify the publication in which the FBI reports crime data, and list the two main ways in which the data are reported.  Distinguish between the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) and self-reported surveys. Discuss the prevailing explanation for the rising number of women being incarcerated in the United States. Discuss the difference between a hypothesis and a theory in the context of criminology.  Explain how brain-scanning technology is able to help scientists determine if an individual is at risk for criminal offending. Describe the importance of early childhood behavior for those who subscribe to self-control theory. Explain the routine activities theory of victimization.  Discuss the connection between learning process and the start of an individual’s drug use.Lesson Plan Correlated to PowerPointsI. Types of CrimeLearning Objective 1: Identify the six different main categories of crime.A. American Criminal Law focuses on six categories of misconduct i. Violent Crimea. Crimes against persons, which dominate our perspectives about crimeb. Four general categories1. Murder2. Sexual Assault3. Assault and Battery4. Robberyc. These acts are further classified by degree, depending on the circumstances surrounding the criminal act Class Discussion/Activity Ask students to discuss the differences between burglary and robbery as well as between assault and battery. ii. Property Crimea. Most common form of criminal activity, during which the goal of the offender is some form of economic gain or damaging of the propertyb. Four general categories1. Larceny / Theft2. Burglary3. Motor Vehicle Theft4. Arson iii. Public Order Crimea. Linked to the consensus model discussed in Chapter 1b. Outlawed activities that are considered contrary to public values and moralsc. Most common include public drunkenness, prostitution, gambling, and illicit drug used. Often referred to as victimless crimes because they only harm the offender (e.g. prostitution, illegal gambling) Class Discussion/Activity Ask students to discuss examples of public order crimes and why these crimes are classified as crimes. Ask them to discuss the consensus model and its connection to public order crimes. iv. White-Collar Crimesa. Business-related crimesb. Describes illegal acts or series of acts committed by an individual or business entity using some nonviolent means to obtain a personal or business advantage v. Organized Crimea. Describes illegal acts by illegal organizations, usually geared toward satisfying the public’s demand for unlawful goods and servicesb. Implies a conspiratorial and illegal relationship among any number of persons engaged in unlawful actsc. Employs criminal tactics 1. Violence2. Corruption3. Intimidation for economic gain d. The hierarchical structure of organized crime operations often mirrors that of legitimate businesses vi. High-Tech Crimea. Newest typology of crime, directly related to increased use of computers in everyday lifeb. Internet has become the site of cyber crime 1. Selling pornographic materials2. Soliciting minors3. Defrauding consumers with bogus financial investments Media Tool “Project 2020 – Scenarios for the Future of Cybercrime” A news clip about the future of cyber crime Discussion: Discuss what the implications of the new technologies are for the criminal justice system. See Assignment 1 II. Measuring Crime in the United StatesLearning Objective 2: Identify the publication in which the FBI reports crime data, and list the two main ways in which the data are reported.A. The Uniform Crime Report i. Uniform Crime Report (UCR) released each year since its inception in 1930 as an attempt to measure the overall crime rate in the United States ii. The UCR is produced by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) iii. UCR relies on the voluntary participation of local law enforcement agencies, with three measurementsa. Number of persons arrestedb. Number of crimes reported by victims, witnesses, or police themselvesc. Number of law enforcement officers iv. Annual publicationa. The UCR presents data in three ways1. As a rate2. As a percentage v. Part I offenses a. Those crimes that, due to their seriousness and frequency, are recorded by the FBI to give a “general picture” of crime in the United Statesb. There are eight Part I offenses1. Murder2. Forcible rape3. Robbery4. Aggravated assault5. Burglary6. Larceny/theft7. Motor vehicle theft8. Arsonc. Reflects those offenses that are “known,” or reported to the FBI by local agencies vi. Part II Offenses a. Those crimes that can be designated as either felonies or misdemeanorsb. Measured only by arrest dataB. The National Incident-Based Reporting System i. Local agencies collect data on each single crime occurrence within twenty-two offense categories made up of forty-six specific crimes ii. Started in 1989 iii. Provides information about four “data sets”a. Offensesb. Victimsc. Offendersd. ArresteesC. Victim Surveys i. An alternative source of data collection attempting to avoid distorting influences of local police agencies ii. Victims are asked directly about their experiences of crime, using techniques of mail or phone surveys iii. The dark figure of crimea. Results of victim survey indicate a higher victimization rate than had been previously expected1. Researchers believe that a better understanding of the “dark figure of crime” is revealed through victim surveys2. Dark figure of crime is the actual amount of crime that occurs in the countryb. The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) (LO 3)1. Started in 19722. Conducted by the U.S. Bureau of the Census in cooperation with the Bureau of Justice Statistics of the Justice Department3. An annual survey of more than 41,000 households with nearly 73,500 occupants over 12 years of age4. Participants are interviewed twice a year concerning their experiences with crimes in the prior 6 months iv. A voice for victimsa. Supporters of the NCVS highlight a number of aspects in which the victim survey is superior to the UCR:1. Measures both reported and unreported crime 2. Unaffected by the police bias and distortions in reporting the crime to the FBI3. Does not rely on victims directly reporting crime to the policeD. Self-Reported Surveys a. Form of data collection, in which persons are asked directly through personal interviews or questionnaires, or over the telephone, about specific criminal activity to which they may have been a partyb. Victims may be more forthcoming because of anonymity Class Discussion/Activity Ask students to discuss the problems with victim surveys. Why is self-reported data not necessarily correct?   See Assignment 2 III. Crime Trends Learning Objective 3: Distinguish between the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) and self-reported surveys.Learning Objective 4: Discuss the prevailing explanation for the rising number of women being incarcerated in the United States. i. The UCR, NCVS, and other statistical measures represent only the tip of the iceberg of crime data ii. Since the 1990s, the violent crime rate decreased by 70% iii. Property crime dropped by 40% iv. Reasonsa. End of the crack cocaine epidemicb. Aging populationc. Improvements in law enforcementd. Gentrification of many former high-crime neighborhoodsA. Leveling Off: Crime in the 2010s i. UCR suggests plateau of crime rates ii. NCVS suggests increase in violent crime by 15% and in property crime by 12% iii. Reasons for the difference may be that many crimes are not reported to the police and thus are not reflected in the UCR Class Discussion/Activity Ask students to discuss possible reasons of the stagnation or even decrease in crime in the past few years. How should policy makers respond to decrease the crime rate? B. Crime, Race, and Poverty i. Race and Crimea. Official crime data indicate a strong relationship between minority status and crimeb. Black men are 12x more likely to be sent to prison for a drug-related convictionc. Black women are 5x more likely to be sent to prison for a drug-related convictiond. Racial differences in crime statistics are one of the most controversial areas of the criminal justice systeme. Regardless of race, a person has much higher risk of violent behavior if he or she lives in a poverty-stricken, disorganized neighborhood or in a household run by single parent ii. Class and Crime a. Lack of education, as a handicap faced by low-income citizens, seems to correlate with criminal activityb. High crime rates in low-income communities are at least partly the result of a greater willingness of police to arrest poor citizens and of the court system to convict them. Class Discussion/Activity Ask students to discuss why lower class individuals are overrepresented among offenders and victims. Then, ask them to discuss the relationship between race and class. Why does the prison population look so different from the general population? iii. Ethnicity and Crimea. Most research focuses on the differences between European Americans and African Americans, but many groups such as Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Native Americans, and immigrants from the South Pacific or Eastern Europe have been underreported in crime studiesb. Latinos are the fastest growing minority group in the U.S. prison populationC. Women and Crime i. Crime is a predominantly male activity – more than 68% of crimes are committed by males ii. While women represent a small number of arrests, the number of female offenders in the criminal justice system is rapidly increasing, from 6,000 prison inmates in 1970 to 109,000 in 2012 iii. There are two possible explanations for these increases:a. The life circumstances and behavior of women have changed dramatically in the past forty yearsb. The criminal justice system’s attitude toward women has changed over that time period Class Discussion/Activity Ask students to discuss the causes of the stark increase in female arrests and convictions. What type of crimes are females most likely to commit? What are the possible consequences of incarcerating females who have children? IV. What Causes Crime?Learning Objective 5: Discuss the difference between a hypothesis and a theory in the context of criminology.Learning Objective 6: Explain how brain-scanning technology is able to help scientists determine if an individual is at risk for criminal offending.Learning Objective 7: Describe the importance of early childhood behavior for those who subscribe to self-control theory. i. The study of crime, or criminology, is rich with different philosophies as to why people commit crimeA. Correlation and Causation i. Correlation between two variables means that they tend to vary together. ii. Causation, in contrast, means that one variable is responsible for the change in the other. iii. Correlation does not equal cause iv. Studies may show a correlation between factors, but few criminologists would go so far as to show causation between factors Class Discussion/Activity Ask students to provide examples of correlations and causes to help them understand the difference.   B. The Role of Theory i. Criminologists have developed a number of theories that concern the causes of crime ii. Theories are designed as explanations of happening or circumstance and are based on observation, experimentation, and reasoning iii. Researchers test hypotheses to determine their validity iv. Scientific and academic researchers observe facts and their consequences to develop hypotheses about what will occur when a similar fact pattern is present in the future. v. Criminological theories are primarily concerned with determining the reasons behind criminal behavior, but can also provide practical guidelines for agencies of the criminal justice systemC. The Brain and the Body i. James Q. Wilson posits about rational choice theory that before a person commits a crime, he or she will weigh the benefits against the costs, and when perceived benefits are greater, the person is likely to commit the crimea. “Thrill Offenders”1. Sociologist Jack Katz has expanded on rational choice theory by suggesting that the rewards of offending may be sensual as well as financial; he calls this the seduction of crimeb. Rational Choice Theory and Public Policy1. The theory that wrongdoers choose to commit crimes is a cornerstone of the American criminal justice system2. Because crime is the end result of choices, policymakers have reasoned that severe punishment can deter criminal activity3. Supporters of the death penalty emphasize its deterrent effects as do legislators using harsh mandatory sentences Class Discussion/Activity Ask students to discuss the underlying assumptions of rational choice theory. How “rational” are people in every day life and how “rational” are criminals? Do criminals have enough information to weigh the costs and benefits of a crime? Ask students to plan a robbery and list the costs, benefits, and unknowns. How would they decide whether to commit the robbery? What If Scenario What if . . . you are asked to test rational choice theory with regard to whether the death penalty is a deterrent to the crime of murder.  What arguments can you make for?  Against?  Can rational choice theory accurately explain and/or interpret why people with diseases of the mind commit crimes?  c. Trait Theories of Crime1. Theories suggest that certain biological and psychological traits in individuals could incline them toward criminal behavior given a certain set of circumstances2. Genetics and Crime i. For example, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and low self control have been linked to antisocial behavior and crime3. Hormones and Aggression i. One trait theory states that biochemical conditions can influence criminal behavior ii. Criminal behavior in males can be linked to the hormone testosterone4. The Brain and Crime i. Neurophysiology ii. Exposure to lead increases propensity to violent behavior Media Tool “League of Denial – The NFL’s Concussion Crisis” Watch the documentary about football players and brain injuries. Discussion: Discuss the impact of concussions on behavior. Following, ask students if they can think of solutions to the problem.
5. Mental Illness and Crime i. More than half of all prison and jail inmates have mental health problems ii. For example, schizophrenia has been linked to high rates of suicides and harm to others iii. Alcohol and drug use increases the likelihood that people with mental health issues will behave violently Class Discussion/Activity Ask students to discuss the prevalence of mental health issues among inmates and what problems arise from these inmates within the CJ system, including court proceedings, corrections, and recidivism rates.    d. Psychology and Crime1. People have traits that make them more or less predisposed to criminal activity2. Social psychology focuses on how human beings relate to and influence one another3. Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Experiment focused on aggression in a mock-correctional settinge. Trait Theory and Public Policy 1. Trait theories suggest that antisocial behavior should be identified and treated before it manifests in first-time or further criminal activityD. Bad Neighborhoods and other Economic Disadvantages  Sociological theories indicate that crime is the result of social conditions in a person’s environment i. Social Disorganization Theorya. Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay studied high-crime neighborhoods in Chicago and found these “zones” were characterized by “disorganization”b. Breakdown of traditional institutions of social controls such as family, school systems, or local businessesc. Ecological factors that lead to crime in these neighborhoods are perpetuated by continued elevated levels of high school dropouts, unemployment, deteriorating infrastructures, and single-parent families. ii. Strain Theory a. Durkheim believed that anomie resulted when social change threw behavioral norms into a flux, leading to a weakening of social controls and an increase in deviant behavior.b. Merton believed that anomie was caused by a social structure in which all citizens have similar goals without equal means to achieve them iii. Social Conflict Theoriesa. Identify power (the ability of one person or group of persons to control the economic and social positions of other people or groups) as the key component in explaining crimeb. Often associated with a critique of our capitalist economic system1. Capitalism is seen as leading to high levels of violence and crime because of the disparity of income it encourages2. Laws reflect only the values of the segment of society that has achieved power and is willing to use the criminal justice system as a tool to keep that power What If Scenario What if  . . . a police officer killed an African-American, unarmed street-level marijuana dealer while he was attempting to serve a search warrant at his apartment in a predominantly African-American neighborhood.  Circumstances suggest that the police officer was mistaken about his belief that the suspect was armed.  If you were a proponent of social conflict theory, how would you interpret the man’s death?  E. Life Lessons and Criminal Behavior i. Social Process Theories a. The potential for criminal behavior exists in everyone and will be realized depending on an individual’s interaction with various institutions and processes of society ii. Learning Theorya. Popularized by Edwin Sutherlandb. Theory of differential association sees crime as learned behavior, where the  “teacher” is usually a family member or a friend who exposes the “student” to criminal behaviorc. The offender mimics the dominant values they are exposed to Class Discussion/Activity Ask students to discuss whether deviant friends cause a juvenile to become deviant or whether deviant juveniles flock together. You might also ask students to discuss peer pressures and the impact of social media. iii. Control Theory a. Hirschi focuses on the reasons why individuals do not engage in criminal acts, rather than why they dob. According to Hirschi, social bonds promote conformity to social norms. The stronger these social bonds the less likely that any individual will commit a crimec. James Q. Wilson and George Kelling describe control theory in terms of the “broken windows” effect. Neighborhoods in poor condition are filled with cues of lack of social control that invite further vandalism and other deviant behavior. iv. Life Course Theories of Crime a. Believe that lying, stealing, bullying, and other conduct problems that occur in childhood are the strongest predictors of future criminal behavior and have been seriously undervalued in the examination of why crime occursb. Self-Control Theory1. Gottfredson and Hirschi believe that criminal behavior is linked to “low self-control,” a personality trait that is formed before a child reaches the age of ten and can usually be attributed to poor parenting2. These two criminologists ascribe to what has been called the continuity theory of crime, which essentially says that once negative behavior patterns have been established, they cannot be changed.3. Someone with low self-control is generally impulsive, thrill seeking, and likely to solve problems with violence rather than his or her intellect4. The Possibility of Changea. Robert Sampson and John Laub have gathered a great deal of data showing that offenders may experience “turning  points” when they are able to veer off the road from a life of crimeb. Several researchers have studied the role that religion and spirituality can play as “hooks for change.” Class Discussion/Activity Ask students to discuss the underlying assumption of self-control theory. Is self-control a constant condition or does it vary within individuals? What are the implications of the answer to this question for the validity of the theory? Can they think of crimes that require high self control? Class Discussion/Activity Which of the criminological theories presented in this chapter do you believe is most sound?  What are the reasons you have for supporting this theory?  Do you think this chosen theory could be used to explain all types of crimes and the actions of all criminals? See Assignment 3 V. Victims of CrimeLearning Objective 8: Explain the routine activities theory of victimization. i. Victimology as the study of “relationships between victims and offenders and the interactions between victims and the criminal justice system.A. The Risk of Victimization i. Anybody can be victim of crime ii. Cohen and Felson devised routine activities theory to explain victimization.
iii. Three elements are needed for victimization to occur:1. A likely offender2. A suitable target3. The absence of a capable guardian iv. Repeat Victimization1. Cohen and Felson: offenders attach “values” to suitable targets2. The higher the value, the more likely is victimization3. Vulnerable victims: illegal immigrants, prior victims v. The Victim-Offender Connection1. Offenders are also more likely to be victimsB. Women as Crime Victims i. Often in connection with a prior relationship ii. Sexual Violence 1. Six in every ten crimes in the US are committed by someone known to the victim2. Highest victimization rate between 12 and 34 year olds iii. Other Common Crimes Against Women1. Domestic violence2. Stalking What If Scenario What if  . . . you were acquainted with a fellow female student who went on a date with an acquaintance, and, unknown to her, the “date” administered a date-rape drug to her during the evening.  Tragically, she is raped.  She seems to resist your insistence to report the crime to police.  What reasons can you think of that your friend might give for not reporting the crime? What would be the reasons you would give to your friend to report the crime to the police?  C. Mental Illness and Victimization i. People with mental illness are much more likely to be victims1. Mental illness often interferes with person’s ability to find and keep employment, and leads to poverty, which correlates with victimization2. The mentally ill are more likely to be homeless, a circumstance that leaves them particularly susceptible to crime3. Mental illness can interfere with the person’s ability to make prudent decisions in potentially dangerous situations Media Tool “Bureau of Justice Statistics – Characteristics of Crime Victims” Report issued by the Bureau of Justice Statistics summarizing findings about victimization in the United States from 1973 through 2008. Assignment:  From this website, students can access victimization rates broken down by a number of victim characteristics, including age, gender and race.  Students can be assigned to small groups.  Within each group, have them discuss one of the individual characteristics and its impact on victimization.  Students should prepare a brief presentation to give to the entire class. See Assignment 4 VI. The Link Between Drugs and Crime Learning Objective 9: Discuss the connection between the learning process and the start of an individual’s drug use.A. The Criminology of Drug Use i. Theories of Drug Use a. Several theories have been proposed to explain drug abuse, including  
choice theory, trait theory, social disorganization theory, and learning theory. ii. Drugs and the Learning Processa. Learn the techniques of drug useb. Learn to perceive the pleasurable effects of drug usec. Learn to enjoy the social experience of drug use Class Discussion/Activity Ask students why it may be very difficult to stop taking drugs. What would they do if they thought one of their friends was taking drugs? B. Drug Addiction and Dependency i. Drug Use vs. Drug Abusea. Drug abuse is the use of any drug – licit or illicit – that causes either psychological or bodily harm to the abuser or to third partiesb. Despite their small numbers, abusers have a disproportionately large impact on the market ii. Addiction Basicsa. Extreme abusers are dependent on a drugb. When the drug is cut off, the abuser’s brain strongly feels the lack of dopamine stimulation, and the abuser suffers withdrawalC. The Drug-Crime Relationship i. Prescription Drug Abusea. Increased demand for these prescription drugs has led to home invasions, robberies, assaults, homicides, thefts—all kinds of crime.b. Prescription drugs are second only to marijuana in government rankings of the most abused drugs in the United Statesc. Legal, over-the-counter substances are the main ingredient in the manufacture of methamphetamine (meth), a highly addictive stimulant to the central nervous system ii. Meth and Heroina. Meth is easy to make and highly addictiveb. Heroin is also very popularc. When law enforcement concentrates on one drug, drug users turn to other drugs iii. Marijuana Legalizationa. Colorado and Washington recently legalized marijuanab. The question about the impact on crime and drug abuse are unknown at this pointc. 52% of adults favor legalization Media Tool “Reports: Miami  Zombie Attacker May Have Been Using Bath Salts”  CNN; Brad Lendon Assignment: Ask students to think about other drugs that may be linked to violent behavior. If drugs were legalized, how would that impact the crime rate? Will it have similar effects across different types of crimes or may the impact vary? See Assignment 5 Lecture Notes Chapter 2 introduces students to the major categories of crimes, how crime is measured and the various explanations for criminal behavior. In order for crime to be measured, it must first be identified.  The beginning of the chapter introduces the student to the six major categories of crimes.  They are:  1) violent crime; 2) property crime; 3) public order crime; 4) white collar crime; 5) organized crime; and 6) high tech crime.  Within each category, several specific crimes are discussed, as they form the actions that are collected, measured, and reported through the various statistical measures.  For example, murder, sex assault, assault, and robbery are defined under the major category of violent crime.Crime is measured in three primary ways. First, official crime statistics are collected annually and published by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The FBI’s Uniform Crime Report (UCR) presents data collected by law enforcement agencies throughout the U.S. according to rates per 100,000 persons and as a percentage change from the previous year. Encourage students to familiarize themselves with the UCR; you might spend some time accessing data in class and allowing students to observe. A second source of crime data is that which is collected through victim surveys. This method captures crimes that are never reported to police or are not associated with a criminal arrest. This method is also touted as being extremely successful in identifying and counting the “dark figure” of crime, defined as the figure of crime that is impossible to detect because these crimes are never reported to the police.  Finally, self-reported surveys allow offenders to disclose their own criminal behaviors, even those that may have gone undetected. Walk students through the advantages and disadvantages associated with each of these methods, and explain how, taken together, the nature and extent of offending can be revealed. Why might crime victims not report victimizations to the police?Chapter 2 also explores current trends in criminal offending, including declining crime rates over recent years. Special attention is paid to linkages between crime, race, and poverty.  Racial differences in crime rates are one of the most controversial areas of the criminal justice. In addition to race, what are some other correlates that are linked to crime and why might they be substantively more important in explaining criminal behavior? For example, statistically, poor people commit more crimes, and are victims of more crimes, than people of a higher socioeconomic status. Why does this occur? What risk factors can be found in low-income communities that might contribute to increased criminal activity?
In addition to racial differences, special attention is also paid to the tremendous explosion of crimes being committed by women.  Over the last three decades, male arrest rates for the crime of aggravated assault has remained relatively constant, yet female arrest rates for the same crime has nearly doubled.  What explanations are offered by the author?  What do the students feel about the expert explanation offered that “rising female criminality is the result of a criminal justice system that is more willing to incarcerate women?”  End your discussion by encouraging students to brainstorm ways that we can use these variables related to crime (guns, gangs, drugs, age, and poverty) to prevent crime from occurring.Midway through Chapter 2 students are introduced to criminological explanations for crime. Undoubtedly, most students will have their own theories as to why offenders break the law. It is interesting to brainstorm those causes prior to sharing information from this part of the chapter, and then compare those responses to the various criminological theories. Did students subscribe to one of the theories in the text without even realizing it? Encourage students to reflect on their beliefs as you move through this section of the chapter. Do their perceptions of the motivations behind offending remain consistent, or are the persuaded by a theory that is introduced in the chapter?Choice theories are based on the concept of free will. Offenders weigh the costs and benefits of a particular criminal behavior and then choose to offend. This idea can be illustrated to students by asking them to discuss a common illegal behavior like underage drinking. Many students engaged in this behavior prior to reaching the legal age for alcohol consumption, and did so knowing that it was illegal. In contrast, trait theorists believe that criminal behavior is not a rational choice, but the result of some biological or psychological condition. While students might be quick to dismiss the idea that traits compel people to commit crime, there are numerous examples of criminal defenses based on positivistic factors. Have them consider the case of Andrea Yates, who drowned her five children. Yates’s defense was based on her diagnosis of postpartum psychosis. After considering cases like hers, how viable do students feel that traits are as an explanation for criminal offending? Several sociological theories are also presented in the chapter. These theories assert that offending is the result of interaction between the offender and his or her environment. These theories can be grouped into several families, including: social disorganization theory, strain theory, social process theories, learning theory, and social conflict theories. This portion of the chapter may be the most confusing for students because there are so many theories from which to distinguish. It may be helpful to spend a few minutes distinguishing between each of the three types of sociological theories and then place each individual theory in the correct category on the board as you discuss them.Victimology, or the study of the interaction of the criminal justice system and victims, is another concept discussed in Chapter 2. Victimology first emerged in the 1940s. While anyone can be a crime victim, the risk of victimization is disproportionate. For example, some who are victimized will be victimized more than once. Also, data suggest that some who are at higher risk of victimization also have a greater propensity to commit crime as well. Why is this the case? Ask students to discuss the typical traits of criminal offenders and also to identify those of crime victims. Do they notice any similarities?The final part of Chapter 2 explores the link between drug use and crime and then closes with a brief discussion of the concept of the chronic offender, otherwise referred to as the career criminal. Ask students to discern the differences between illegal drug use, drug abuse, and drug addiction. Given the important role that illegal drugs may play in criminal activity, what might this mean for the kinds of treatment programs needed for inmates housed in jails and prisons?Key TermsAssault – a threat or an attempt to do violence to another person that causes the other person tofear immediate physical harm.  (p. 35)Battery –  the act of physically contacting another person with the intent to do harm, even if theresulting injury is insubstantial.  (p. 35)Biology – the science of living organisms, including their structure, growth, function, andorigin.  (p. 47)Burglary -the act of breaking into or entering a structure (such as a home or office) withoutpermission for the purpose of committing a crime.  (p. 35)Causation – the relationship in which a change in one measurement or behavior creates arecognizable change in another measurement or behavior. (p. 45)Control theory – a series of theories that assume that all individuals have the potential forcriminal behavior, but are restrained by the damage that such actions would do to theirrelationships with family, friends, and members of the community.  (p. 54)Correlation – the relationship between two measurements or behaviors that tend to movein the same direction.  (p. 45)Criminology – the scientific study of crime and the causes of criminal behavior. (p. 45)Dark figure of crime – a term used to describe the actual amount of crime that takes place. The“figure” is “dark,” or impossible to detect, because a great number of crimes are never reportedto the police.  (p. 39)Domestic violence – maltreatment, including physical violence and psychological abuse,that occurs within a familial or other intimate relationship. (p. 58)Drug abuse – the use of drugs results in physical or psychological problems for the user as wellas disruption of personal relationships and employment.  (p. 60)Genetics – the study of how certain traits or qualities are transmitted from parents to theiroffspring. (p. 48)          Hormone – a chemical substance, produced in tissue and conveyed in the bloodstream,that  controls certain cellular and body functions such as growth and reproduction.  (p. 48)Hypothesis – a possible explanation for an observed occurrence that can be tested by further investigation.  (p. 46)Larceny – the act of taking property from another person without the use of force with the intentof keeping that property. (p. 35)Learning theory – the hypothesis that delinquents and criminals must be taught both thepractical and emotional skills necessary to partake in illegal activity.  (p. 52)Life course criminology – the study of crime based on the belief that behavioral patternsdeveloped in childhood can predict delinquent and criminal behavior later in life. (p. 54)Murder – the unlawful killing of one human being by another. (p. 35)Organized crime – illegal acts carried out by illegal organizations engaged in the market forillegal goods or services, such as illicit drugs or firearms.  (p. 36)Part I offenses – crimes reported annually by the FBI in its Uniform Crime Report. Part Ioffenses include murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, motor vehicletheft, and arson. (p. 38)Part II offenses – all crimes recorded by the FBI that do not fall into the category of Part Ioffenses. They include both misdemeanors and felonies.  (p. 39)Prescription drugs – medical drugs that require a physician’s permission for purchase. (p. 61)Psychology- the scientific study of mental processes and behavior.  (p. 47)Public order crime – behavior that has been labeled criminal because it is contrary to sharedsocial values, customs, and norms.  (p. 33)Rational choice theory – a school of criminology that holds that wrongdoers act as if they weighthe possible benefits of criminal or delinquent activity against the expected costs of beingapprehended.  (p. 46)Repeat victimization – the theory that certain people and places are more likely to be subject torepeated criminal activity and that past victimization is a strong indicator of future victimization.(p. 57)Robbery – the act of taking property from another person through force, threat of force, orintimidation. (p. 35)Self-reported surveys – a method of gathering crime data that relies on participants to reveal anddetail their own criminal or delinquent behavior.  (p. 40)Sexual assault- forced or coerced sexual intercourse (or other sexual acts).  (p. 35)Social conflict theories – a group of theories that view criminal behavior as the result of classconflict.  (p. 52)Social disorganization theory – the theory that deviant behavior is more likely in communitieswhere social institutions such as the family, schools, and the criminal justice system fail to exertcontrol over the population.  (p. 50)Social process theories – a school of criminology that considers criminal behavior to be thepredictable result of a person’s interaction with his or her environment.  (p. 52)Sociology – the study of the development and functioning of groups of people who live togetherwithin a society.  (p. 50)Stalking – the criminal act of causing fear in a person by repeatedly subjecting that person tounwanted or threatening action. (p. 58)Strain theory – the assumption that crime is the result of frustration felt by individuals whocannot reach their financial and personal goals through legitimate means.  (p. 50)Testosterone – the hormone primarily responsible for the production of sperm and thedevelopment of male secondary sex characteristics such as the growth of facial and pubic hairand the change of voice pitch.  (p. 48)Theory – an explanation of a happening or circumstance, that is based on observation,experimentation, and reasoning.  (p. 46)Uniform crime report (UCR) – an annual report compiled by the FBI to give anindication of criminal activity in the United States. (p. 37)Victimology – a school of criminology that studies why certain people are the victims of crimesand the optimal role for victims in the criminal justice system.  (p. 56)Victim surveys – a method of gathering crime data that directly surveys participants to determinetheir experiences as victims of crime. (p. 39)  White-collar crime – nonviolent crimes committed by business entities or individuals togain a personal or business advantage.  (p. 36)Assignments1. Research two types of organized crime and explain characteristics of offenders and victims. What are the consequences of the crime? Which theory would you apply to organized criminals? Why do they commit those crimes?  (LO 1, 6-8)2. Have students go online and access the FBI’s Uniform Crime Report at Ask them to analyze the report and prepare a short report on the offending rates in your area. Once they determine crime rates locally, ask them to compare offending in your area to offending in other locations nationally. How safe is your city?  (LO 2)3. Research the relationship between crime rates in economic factors of communities. Prepare a class presentation about your findings. Are crimes rates higher in low or high income neighborhoods? What may cause these differences in crime rates?  (LO 5-6)4. Ask students to research the connection between alcohol use and offending and victimization. Write a discussion paper about whether the results of your research would warrant the prohibition of alcohol.  (LO 8-9)5. Research the methamphetamine epidemic in Oregon and the impact of methamphetamine on communities. How did Oregon solve the methamphetamine problem? (LO 9)Answers To Critical Thinking Questions In The Text1. Do you agree that public order crimes such as prostitution and illegal gambling are “victimless” crimes? Why or why not?ANS: They are not victimless crimes because the prostitute, especially very young prostitutes can be victims of crime, such as violence. Also these public order crimes can create an environment in which property and violent crimes are likely to occur. Also, prostitutes, especially from foreign countries, may be forced into prostitution. 2. Assume that you are a criminologist who wants to determine the extent to which high school students engage in such risky behavior as abusing alcohol and illegal drugs, carrying weapons, and contemplating suicide. How would you go about gathering data?ANS: I would draw a representative sample of high school students in a certain city and give them an anonymous self-report. 3. Research shows that when levels of single-family mortgage foreclosures rise in a neighborhood, so do levels of violent crime. Explain the correlation between these two sets of statistics. Why is it false to say that single-family mortgage foreclosures cause violent crime to occur?ANS: If single-family foreclosures would cause violent crime then violent crime would have to occur every time there are single-family mortgage foreclosures. This is not the case. It is however possible that foreclosures lead to abandoned houses that may be used for criminal activities. If there are many empty houses, there is less supervision, or control. According to control theory, a lack of control will encourage criminal activity. 4. Why might someone who subscribes to rational choice theory believe that increasing the harshness of a penalty for a particular crime would necessarily lead to fewer such crimes being committed? ANS: Rational choice believes that harsher punishment will deter the individual criminal and the public in general because they will fear the punishment. The theory assumes that people rationally weigh the cost and benefits of a certain behavior. If the punishment is harsh enough, then the costs will outweigh the benefits and people will refrain from crime.     5. Research shows that female college students who have been the victim of rape or attempted rape are at unusually high risk of repeat victimization if they engage in binge alcohol drinking. What victim services should colleges provide to reduce the chances that this group of women will be revictimized?ANS: Services should include educating women about the consequences of alcohol use and vulnerability to sexual assault. Victims should also receive long-term psychological care and be integrated into a self-help group.