Clinical epidemiology 2

Breast cancer cells may be hormone-dependent while some can lie dormant in tissues for a very long time, as long as thirty years, after removal of the primary tumor (Lipkus et al, 2001). Some illnesses may act as catalysts in the progression of the disease in the body (Gail amp. Rimer, 1998). Consequently, this implies that even with earlier detection and treatment, there can be a risk of recurrence during the entire life of the patient. However, with early screening, it is possible to detect these cells before they start causing symptoms (Schonberg et al, 2014. Siegel et al, 2012). Once the disease symptoms start showing, the tumors are mostly larger and will have likely spread to other parts beyond the breast. In contrast, breast cancer cells found earlier through screening are likely smaller and their presence is still limited to the breasts thus their spread is much easier to curtail, for example, through prophylactic surgery (Freedman, 2010. Nelson,2012).At the point of detection, it is easier to estimate the prognosis of breast cancer. The size of the tumor and how far it has spread are vital indicators of predicting prognosis and are almost entirely dependent on the time of detection of the cancer (Siegel et al, 2012). Screening enables detection of the disease in early stages and hence it is possible to reverse the spread of the disease. Consequently, screening improves survival rates among breast cancer patients.The proportion of the population affected by breast cancer is a pointer to the importance of screening the at-risk population. According to studies, breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and causes the second highest number of deaths in the US (Smith et al, 2013). Health statistics indicate that out of every 8 women, one will develop a severe form of breast cancer over the course of her lifetime. In 2014 alone, close to quarter million cases of new breast cancer cases were expected to