The literature seems clear that these traumas when combined with alcohol and other factors present with both alcohol use and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).Tay (2005) presents the attachment theory which says that across species, the attachment system was as important to species survival as were feeding and reproduction (p. 7). She further explains that there are several problems for children and adults when they are substance abusers. Most importantly there is a disruption in the relationship between family members, children may be faced with living in various places to ensure their safety and the parent’s ability to take care of their children is damaged (p. 6).Zubretsky (1999) did a study involving Battered Women and found that women who are battered and use alcohol may find themselves in a situation where their alcohol use may begin or escalate as a response to the trauma of victimization, and efforts to stop using substances may precipitate abusive partners use of increased violence (p. 1). Research shows that women who have been victims of violence have a higher risk of abusing a substance whether it be alcohol or other drugs and this is often their response to the trauma. They are also more apt to use prescription drugs to medicate the emotional and physical pain of abuse.Substance abuse and mental illness as it relates to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), seems to be a common theme in the literature. Becker et. al (2005) studied women who were involved in treatment for trauma. They found that these women were usually low income, had children, were involved in a residential treatment program and many had not finished high school (5-8). The women they studied were abused early in their lives and were abused regularly. Although in this sample, they used a lot of services, the women still felt there were services that weren’t provided to them. The combination of factors that are listed here combined with the substance abuse created mental challenges for the women in this study.