Different types of variables

Variables in a sociological research Variable are the qualities, properties or characteristics of persons, things or situations that are prone to change or vary. Examples of the variable are sex (male or female) age academic success stress and pain. In research, the variables are in two broad categories to make the research more understandable. However, there are other categories of research variable. The main types of variables are the dependent and independent variables. Independent variables, are variables that influence other variables (Lietz, Langer, and Furman 23). The researcher intervenes on these factors to see the resulting change in the dependent variable. On the other hand, dependent variables are outcome variables reflecting the effects of the dependent variable. These factors appear, disappear, diminish or increase in research. In an example, to determine the salt intake on hypertension, the blood pressure is the dependent variable and salt intake is the independent variable. Other variables in research are extraneous variables, which represent the undesired elements affecting research and the confounding variables, which are variables that negate the validity of a research (Lietz, Langer, and Furman 34).
Generally, research is divided into two main types, qualitative and quantitative research. Quantitative research is a statistical analysis that attaches values in the study variables in a study and utilizes statistical methods. Conversely, qualitative research is a non-statistical kind of study in which seeks to provide the comprehension of the factors behind a problem. Either this study will provide deal and insight for the preceding studies (Lietz, Langer, and Furman 34). Survey is a type of quantitative research often used to assess thoughts, opinions, and feelings. Usually, a researcher has a predetermined set of questions for the survey sample. Using the representative sample the researcher then draws the population of interest from which he describes the attitude of the required variable from the population sample.
In sociological research, determination of the study topic is the first of the six steps. In this, the researcher identifies their aim for the study or the questions they want to research. Secondly, they look on the existing literature of what other sociologists have done on the topic they want to research (Lietz, Langer, and Furman 35). Through this, they identify the existing gaps in the study and avoid duplication of already studied problems. Either, the review of literature makes the researcher to avoid mistakes made by others and choose on the better methods of study. Then the researcher makes hypothesis, which are researcher’s statements describing on how variables correlate. After adequate preparation, the researcher enters the field to collect relevant data (Lietz, Langer, and Furman 35). Depending of the method of research chosen and the sample size the researcher administers the study too to correct adequate data. The fifth step is analysis of the collected data. Here the researcher uses the central tendencies and other statistical approaches to code clean and arrange the data collected in a statistical manner (Lietz, Langer, and Furman 35). Finally, the researchers publish and share their findings with others. This will allow for more research and utilization of the research findings.
In a research, one variables share a relationship either as cause effect or as correction. Cause is one variable directly having an effect on another variable. For example, an increase in acceleration in a car will decrease the time for a journey. On the other hand, correlation refers to two or more factors having the same effect. For example, a family history of lung cancer and smoking has a chance in causing cancer in a person. However, it is not definite that they will actually cause cancer.
American Sociological Association provides for five general principles of ethics in research. The fist is professional competence. The researchers should marinating strict level of competence in research as well realize the limitations of their expertise. Second, the researchers should widely employ integrity in the research (Lietz, Langer, and Furman 33). This means that they should be honest respectful and fair to the respondents and respect their privacy. Then there is adherence to professional and scientific responsibility. As researchers, sociologist should stick to occupational and scientific standards and be ready to accept responsibility for their work. Besides, in the research work respect for the respondent’s right, diversity and dignity is a virtue of the ethics (Lietz, Langer, and Furman 33). Finally, the researchers should be aware of the social responsibilities of their professional and scientific role to the communities (Lietz, Langer, and Furman 34). In this, application of their research should bring good to the community
Work cited
Lietz, Cynthia A, Carol L Langer, and Rich Furman. “Establishing Trustworthiness in Qualitative Reseach in Social Work.” Qualitative Social Work 5.4 (2006): 441 – 458. Web.