Major Issues and Challenges in the Environmental Portfolio All around Australia, different states are experiencing problems regarding the management of the environment. This section will analyze the environmental challenges and their impact on the country. Water pollutionThe most common environmental problem in Australia is the issue of water pollution (Reisser amp. Pattiaratchi, 2013). There is widespread pollution in rivers, water bodies and in the oceanic waters surrounding the country. Water pollution is especially widespread in cities neighbouring the sea. The Australian coastline is polluted by wastes such as plastics and wastes from industries. It is estimated that every square kilometer of the country’s sea area contains over 4,000 pieces of plastic waste (Reisser amp. Pattiaratchi, 2013). The plastics drain into the sea from inland waters that flow through residential areas and flow into the sea. Industries have contributed to water pollution by dumping industrial waste into the sea or rivers. Stormwater contributes to pollution by draining harmful substances from the land and into the sea (OEH, 2015). Spillages from sewage drainage systems and waste treatment plants end up in water bodies resulting in further pollution. Oil spillages may be infrequent but they still contribute to water pollution. Water pollution has led to a deterioration of the marine ecosystem leading to the reduction in the population of aquatic organisms (Forstner amp. Wittmann, 2012, pp.91-93).