The idea of individual wealth goes against both of the major philosophies in China – that of Mao Tse-Tung, the longtime Chairman of the Communist Party in China, and that of Confucius, the renowned philosopher of ancient times (Redfern and Crawford, 2004). . Both of these schools of thought taught that the interests of the individual should be of less priority than the interests of the community. It should be no surprise that when companies from Western countries have arrived in the last thirty years to do business in this "new" China, they have been surprised by some of the cultural differences. Cultural values in Europe and in the Americas, in many instances, value the individual more than the community. As a result, companies have often gone to China to do business, and come away feeling that they have dealt with a corrupt culture. that they had operated under expectations that turned out to be unproven. that each person within a Chinese company has a different perspective on a given situation, and will even stab each other in the back to gain an advantage (Blackman, 2000). The area of copyright protection is one on which Chinese and many Western companies seem to disagree – many Chinese companies appear to have a more relaxed view on copyright violations (Whitman, Townsend, and Hendrickson, 1999). Kylie Redfern and John Crawford presented "An Empirical Investigation of the Influence of Modernisation on the Moral Judgement and Managers in the People’s Republic of China" in Cross-Cultural Management, a vignette-based survey of managers across China that sought their responses to several ethical scenarios. These managers came from 21 of China’s 28 provinces, which were ranked by their "modernization" using a scoring system devised by the authors. The authors combined the provincial scoring system with the attitudinal responses returned by the managers to determine whether managers in more modernized provinces had business ethics that were closer to Western norms than those in less modernized provinces. .  .  .