Halford Mackinder

As the discussion stresses the ability of European powers to exert their influence was sorely tested through the manner in which they competed among themselves. This was especially the case considering that most of the actions that they undertook to ensure their greatness tended to go against the interests of other powers. In this way, such countries as Germany had a hard time because they could not exert their influence in any direction within Europe in such a way that it was surrounded by European powers such as Britain to the west, Russia to the east, and Austria-Hungary to the south. The result was that this country could not take any action that risked antagonising any of its neighbours, hence creating a situation where there was likely to be war on the European continent.

This paper discusses that&nbsp.the rise of new powers such as the United States and Japan posed a challenge to the European dominance of the world especially when one considers that these were relatively young industrialised countries, which could also exert their influence over their immediate regions. It is through the rise of these powers that it became possible to notice that European powers were on the decline. The ability of European powers, especially Britain, to bring its influence to bear over the rest of the world came to be sorely tested through the coming of these two powers on the scene.&nbsp.The closing of the global political system meant regional powers were rising which were essentially challenging the status quo.