History of Art Architecture and Design

The term modernism is an artistic and cultural movement that normally includes progressive art and architecture, music and literature emerging in the decades before 1914, as artists rebelled against late 19th-century academic and historicist traditions.
The concept of modernization comes from a view of societies as having a standard evolutionary pattern, as described in the social evolutionism theories. Society would progress inevitably from barbarism to ever superior levels of development and civilization. The more modern states would be wealthier, the more freedom and a higher standard of living their citizens will have. This was the standard view in the social sciences for many decades with its foremost advocate being Talcott Parsons. This theory stressed the importance of societies being open to change and saw as reactionary forces restricting development. Maintaining a tradition for tradition’s sake was thought to be harmful to progress and development. However, this approach has been heavily criticized, mainly because it conflated modernization with westernization. In this model, the modernization of a society required the destruction of the indigenous culture and its replacement by a more westernized one.

Modernity denoted the idea that the present is discontinuous with the past, that through a process of social and cultural change, life in the present is basically distinct from past life. This sense or idea as a world view contrasts with tradition, which is simply the sense that the present is continuous with the past, that the present in some way repeats the forms, behavior, and events of the past.5 Modernity could include all of post-medieval European history, in the context of dividing history into three large epochs: Antiquity or Ancient history, the Middle Ages, and Modern. It is also applied specifically to the period beginning somewhere between 1870 and 1910, through the present, and even more specifically to the 1910-1960 period.&nbsp.