Horizontal Flow Inwardoutward Flow Vertical Information flow and Downward information Flow of financial data in the Kuali system

There are essentially four different groups involved in the Kuali process: the initiator, the department representative or BSC, the account manager, and the DFA. Horizontal flow would occur between any individuals that are contained within the same group. For example, an initiator sharing information with a co-worker on the same level or an account manager sharing information with another account manager would constitute horizontal flow (Cornell University, 2005).
Inward flows occur when an outside entity or group sends information into one of the four internal groups. An example of this could be a service center such as a document editor sending that information to an account manager. Outward flows are the exact opposite. These occur when an internal group sends information to an outside entity or group. An example of this could be an account manager sending financial data to a service center that serves as an account delegate (Cornell University, 2008).
Vertical information flows occur among the four different groups. These constitute those flows where information either travels upward or downward among the groups. An example of this could be when the initiator sends information to the department representative or when the department representative sends information to the account manager. They also occur the other direction, when the account manager sends information to the department representative or the department representative sends information to the initiator.
Downward information flow occurs when a group that is higher than another sends information to a group that is lower on the hierarchy. This can happen when the DFA sends information to an account manager, when an account manager sends information to a department representative or BSC, or when a department manager or BSC sends information to the initiator. It is not possible for information to be sent any lower since the initiator is at the bottom of the hierarchy.
According to McNeely and Wheeler, "Fiscal officers can delegate approval authority to both primary and secondary approvers. An organization can specify extra routing, and units or central administration can establish predefined "special conditions" for some or all documents. For example, a college can specify that all budget adjustments be routed to the dean, or the central research administration office can stipulate that any transaction involving a contract or grant account be routed to a central post-award office. The workflow engine also accommodates specialized routing based on the dollar value of the document. Ad hoc routing-for both approval and FYI purposes-is also available" (2006)
The type of data that is being exchanged using the Kuali system is financial data. The overall system is designed on a business model for higher education. Also according to McNeely and Wheeler, " The data structures, transaction interfaces, and back-office processes are built to accommodate how higher education institutions are structured. However, there is sufficient flexibility in the design for each institution to tailor the system to its needs without requiring major modifications.