y rate of 45 million people worldwide and The Third Pandemic, which originated in the Yunan Province of China in 1892 and ended in San Francisco in 1909. The Plague continues to erupt sporadically up to present times when advances in antibiotic treatment have fortunately made us better equipped to deal with it. 2 Following closely on the heels of the cataclysmic Famine of 1315 – 1317, the Great Pandemic of 1347 – 1352, variously called the Great Dying, the Pestilence, the Black Death, and the Bubonic Plague, was a blight that would forever change the face of Europe. 3 The City-States of Italy were among the nations which bore the brunt of it’s’ ravages. Both Venice and Florence suffered devastating attacks from the Bubonic Plague, with similar effects on their demographics, religion, economy, and culture: however, in the long term, while the plague led to Venice’s political downfall, it was one of the seeds responsible for the blossoming of the Italian Renaissance in Florence.The pathogen responsible for the Bubonic Plague is the bacillus Yersinia Pestis, isolated and identified by the French bacteriologist Alexandre Yersin in 1894. It is endemic in rats, where it persists in the bloodstream of its’ host. The vector which carries the pathogen and causes it’s’ spread is the Rat Flea (Xenopsylla cheopis), which ingests the pathogen when it bites an infected rat. The bacillus rapidly proliferates in the digestive tract of the flea, where it solidifies and blocks digestion. The ravenous flea continues to bite rats and unable to swallow, regurgitates the rats’ blood, along with the pathogen, into the rats’ bloodstream. Infected rats either die or suppress the infection and continue to host the pathogen. When the population of animal hosts decreases, the fleas bite men and the human immune system, ill-equipped to handle the pathogen, succumbs. The Plague in humans is of three types: Bubonic Plague, Pneumonic Plague, and Septicaemic Plague.