Human bioscience

pH has a direct effect on the structure of proteins in the human body as pH aberrations lead to either excess protonation or deprotonation of the proteins. This has a direct effect on the protein structures making them less functional. Proteins form the major component of bodily structures, enzymes and chemical components, and their chemical sensitivity to pH leads to an increased demand for regulator mechanisms so that pH can be maintained within the required ranges. pH maintainence is important mainly in the blood or the extracellular compartment, however, several cells of the body and even the brain require a proper maintainence of intracellular pH levels. Intracellular compartments are mainly more acidic than the extracellular compartments because of the negative charges on the inside of the cells. Cells also contain hydrogen pumps such as H-ATPase and Na/H exchanger pumps which are crucial in maintaining the pH inside the cells and keep in metabollicaly active (Seifter, et al., 2005 pg.392). pH of the blood is susceptible to changes in response to several physiological as well as pathological processes and body mechanisms work in conjunction regulate the ranges. pH ranges are subjected to alterations after increased acid or basic food intake, excessive exercise or in conditions such as alcoholism, salicylate poisoning, diabetes or hyperventilation. These are only some of the examples which alter the pH levels and require prompt compensations. Body responds by its chemical buffering system, respiratory mechanisms and renal compensations mainly to keep the pH withing the normal ranges.The acid base homeostasis of the body is maintained by body buffers, chemosensors present in the brain as well as the circulation, the kidneys and the lungs. These components form the basic acid-base apparatus of the human body. The buffers present in the body include bicarbonate, proteins, phosphate and other