Learning or Cognitive Personality Theories Number Introduction Behavior analysis theory can be defined as a science based on the foundations and the principles of behaviorism. Devoted to this part of behavior analysis is the division 25 of the American Psychological Division. It states that the fact that behavior analysis is centered on behavior as a topic makes it to be unique. Also the division explains that behavior analysis can happen in three diverse ways (Johnston et al., 2006). First it can happen by experimental study of behavior, second by applied behavior analysis. Applied behavior analysis is a process that takes what is known in research on behavior then using it in individual, cultural and social backgrounds. Lastly behavior analysis can happen through conceptual analysis of behavior (Johnston et al., 2006). This is an area that addresses historical, philosophical, methodological and theoretical issues within behavior analysis. This paper reassesses the example a child seeing the effect of a parent smoking and how that can affect the child’s to not smoke in order to not have the punishment. Discussion Punishment in the case of smoking parent can be used as a reinforcement that leads to the behavior that is desired. This is a concept that was introduced by B.F Skinner in operant conditioning. The concepts play a powerful role in analysis of behavior, modification of behavior as well as psychotherapy (Skinner, 1950). In operant conditioning learning takes place through punishments and rewards. In this, a link is made between a behavior and its outcomes (Skinner, 1950). For example, in case of a smoking parent, the child will observe what the outcomes of smoking are on the parent then decide if they are desirable to him or not. Smoking results to approximately 90 percent of lung cancer. It results to cancer attack in most parts of the body. Cancer is disease that is very hard to live with and it mostly results to death. A child whose parent suffers from cancer that is out of smoking will choose not to smoke in order to avoid the punishment that is caused by this disease and its consequences. Smoking also results to damage of the heart, which affects the circulation of the blood, increasing the risk of developing conditions like heart attack, heart diseases, stroke, damaged blood vessels and cerebral-vascular disease. All of these diseases make an individual to suffer with a lot of pain. The pain and suffering serve as the punishment for smoking. A child who observes his parent going through this punishment will avoid smoking in order to avoid this kind of punishment. A child may also suffer due to secondhand smoking resulting to him hating the act of smoking. The punishment that the child suffers due to inhaling the secondhand smoke discourages him from ever smoking. Conclusion In the above examples, the punishment or possibility of punishment results to avoidance of a behavior, but operant conditioning can also be useful in increasing a behavior. The application of a negative consequence has been useful in this case in discouraging of smoking which is an undesirable behavior. The potential punishment that a child anticipates if he smokes makes him avoid smoking.ReferencesJohnston, J. M., Foxx, R. M., Jacobson, J. W., Green, G., amp. Mulick, J. A. (2006). Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis. Behavior Analyst, 29, 1, 51-74.Skinner, B. F. (1950). Are theories of learning necessary? Psychological Review, 57, 4, 193-216.