Managing Effectively Standards and Expectations of Modern Management

Power is an important privilege possessed by managers who can use it to get things done from others. Subordinates perceive their managers to exercise different powers based on the situation. Like, the power to recognize someone, ability to punish or reprimand, ability to examine others based on tasks, personal influence through attraction or charisma etc.Different types of leadership styles have been proposed based on their traits, like, autocratic characterised by imposing decisions, instruction-related expectations, disconnected leadership. democratic characterized by great team involvement, empowering others, disciplined, and connected leadership. thirdly, laissez-faire characterised by complete hands-off approach, involvement only if questioned, absolutely disconnected leadership.Goldsmith and Clutterback (1985) assert that leaders should have a great vision, and be able to provide goal clarity to the followers. Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership model idealizes leaders as people with the ability to tell, sell, participate and delegate tasks according to the situation. Action-centred leadership by John Adair advocates that leadership activities should be specific to the action pertaining to team, individual and task. Blake and Mouton’s managerial grid model explains the impact of varying balance between concern for people (X-axis) and concern for production (Y-axis). This model encompasses all the leadership styles previous explained by various other scholars. Lastly, Fielder’s contingency model focuses on situation-based style and explains three variables, Leaders-member, Task structure, and position power. This model reinforces the need for striking a balance between relationships, goal and task clarity and power of leader for an ideal leadership.McGregor (1987) asserts that four factors contribute to leaders’ success, namely, characteristics of the leader and followers, nature of the organisation, and the socioeconomic and political environment.