These planning methods will correspondingly allocate land as well as road usage for future development needs, maintenance of ecological balance and the promotion of an efficient system so as to address the road problems and management concerns.
Considering the importance of roads in relation to the socio-economic development, the government on its part under its inherent power exercises its right to plan and implement programs and legislation to address it. Correspondingly, since it is vested with public interest, the government regulates road usage and public transport. This is to protect the public’s interest as well as to promote the health, comfort, safety and welfare of the people.
Road user charging is defined as a mechanism through which motorists pay to use a defined area of road and key bridges. 2 Similarly, it can also form a larger scheme to charge for the use of road space and provide a means through which road space can be re-allocated in favour of public transport. 3
Road charging can be broadly classified in to four 4 namely: Tolls, Congestion Pricing, Value Pricing and Variable or Peak Period Pricing. Tolls are considered the long-standing and least controversial among the road charges. It has a universal acceptance as the legal and justifiable means for raising revenue for newly acquired transportation. In the same manner, it is the most perceptible way of road charging. In the European Union, tolled roads exist in eight member countries as well as to a growing number of Central European countries5 and in other parts of the world. Similarly, these tolls can take a number of varieties which may be concealed to the motorists. these hidden charges are often referred to as the shadow toll. 6 The other type called Congestion Pricing is also known as congestion charging. This type of road user charge levies fee precisely with regard to the quantity of the congestion bring about by a car’s journey. It is likewise aimed at putting a ceiling cap on the use of automobiles in crowded places. Its fundamental scheme is for the allocation of meagre road spaces. These congestion pricing addresses the consequences which link up congestion to pollution and improved journey times amongst