Marxist Political Economy the Conservatism f the Communist Party

The history οf ‘civilized’ society, for Marx, has been the history οf different forms οf class exploitation and domination. It is the form οf class domination present which determines the general character οf the whole social structure. For example, the growing οf wheat using traditional, non-mechanical techniques is compatible with a wide range of οf social relations οf production. A Roman citizen often owned slaves who worked his land growing wheat. a feudal lord would seize the surplus wheat grown by the serf on the lands. the early capitalist farmers began to employ landless labourers to do their manual work for a wage that was less than the total value οf the product that they created. In each case, wheat is grown on land by the labour οf men and women, but the social arrangements are totally different. There are totally different class relationships, leading to totally different forms of οf society: ancient, feudal, and capitalist. The one thing that unites these three arrangements is that in each case a minority class rules and takes the surplus away from the producers. Each society, says Marx, embodies class exploitation based on the relationships οf production, or rather, the modes οf production. The key to understanding a given society is to discover which is the dominant mode οf production within it. The basic pattern οf social and political relationships can then be known.
Since Marx concentrates his attention on the class structure οf capitalist societies, it is only proper to follow him. As stated before, the key classes in the capitalist mode οf production are the bourgeoisie and the proletariat, or capitalists and landless wage labourers. While Marx recognizes that there are other classes, the fundamental class division is between this pairing οf the exploiter and the exploited. The bourgeoisie derives their class position from the fact that they own productive wealth. It is not their high income that makes them capitalists, but the fact that&nbsp.they own the means of οf production. For example, the inputs necessary for production – factories, machines, etc. &nbsp.