National Security and Science and Technology policy

This exceedingly complex mission requires a focused effort from our entire society if we are to be successful. To this end, one primary reason for the establishment of the Department of Homeland Security was to provide the unifying core for the vast national network of organizations and institutions involved in efforts to secure our nation." (http://www.dhs.gov/dhspublic/theme_home5.jsp, para 2)
United States history tells that war prompted the creation of most U.S. government science agencies. The integration of an applied Research and Development programs were essential elements in addressing and supporting the agencies’ missions. Elements of fundamental science allows breakthrough of these unlimited opportunities. (http://www.issues.org/18.2/ bonvillian.html, para 18) Thus, R&amp.D, as an integral part in the science and technology policy, has become a major factor in attaining the US national security.
The role of science and technology in the nation’s security was launched when Thomas Jefferson was commissioned to Lewis and Clark two centuries. Since then, territorial expansion and the industrial revolution continued to drive U.S. science and technology policy throughout the 19th century. The country’s unforgettable experiences in the two World Wars and their aftermaths were the primary factors that influenced the government’s realization of science and technology in the 20th century which soon became the turning point that lead to the revolution of science and technology and the importance of its research and development programs. (Marburger, 2005)
The birth of the National Science Foundation in 1950 was the result of the country’s attitudes towards the government’s role in science and technology. Larger and more advanced Department of Energy laboratories were existed and established under the Atomic Energy Commission. Military services were at the same time provided with an official research office in 1951. At that time National Institute for Health (NIH) had existed for twenty years, wherein National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) were established eight years later. Some reorganizations occurred after 1960, notably the metamorphosis of the AEC into the Department of Energy and more recently the creation of the Department of Homeland Security, but since 1960 the federal framework has evolved very little. (Marburger, 2005)
Presidential science advisors were appointed by the government to take the responsibility in overseeing adherence to a presidential policy that insists on competent, objective, balanced, and open advice. Their roles moreover involves in creating strategies on implementation and enforcement of these policies. (Branscomb, 2005) Some of the most significant roles of science advisors in the US federal government involved national security. During the war they linked the President and top