Oral hypoglycemic agents in the management of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus Type II al Affiliation) Oral hypoglycemic agents in the management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus i.Risks
The most common risk of oral therapy is the gastrointestinal upset that arises from the metformin therapy. Besides, it causes the patient to experience nausea, diarrhea, frequent vomiting and anorexia (Battise, 2014). More to the point, oral hypoglycemic agents have potential of subjecting the patient to weight loss. Moreover, it increases the amounts of lactic acid in the body, upon hitting the high concentrations in the blood stream.
ii. Benefits
Oral hypoglycemic agents reduce the hepatic glucose that is absorbed in the blood stream. Therefore, these agents are more effective in decreasing the comparative sensitivity to insulin. In addition, oral hypoglycemic agents used by patients with diabetes type two leads to lower concentrations in the levels of fasting insulin (Kuritzky &amp. Samraj, 2011). As such, these agents do not assimilate the energy levels of patients using them, hence subjecting them to loss of body fat, not body muscle mass.
Core therapy for Diabetes
The main therapies for containing diabetes for patients with this disease are weight reduction and healthy eating. Lack of physical activity, common for many people with diabetes is the main cause of prevalence of both types of diabetes. The primary therapy for diabetes, therefore, requires the patient to undertake as much physical activity as possible.
However, the administration of physical exercises is not responsive without observation of healthier lifestyles through dietary changes (Dyson, 2015). People who are newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes have the mainstay therapy of controlling diabetes through adopting healthy diets and reducing their weight. However, people with persistent diabetes have to take medications that lower the level of insulin in the blood. The most critical aim of this therapy, moreover, is to keep the glucose levels at the target range between 5.0mmol/L and 7.0mmol/L.
Types of Diabetes recognized by the American Diabetic Association (Yoshioka, 2013)
i. Type 1 diabetes- This type of diabetes is responsible for absolute deficiency of insulin in the body. It arises for the destruction of cells.
ii. Type 2 diabetes is a disease that results from progressive defect of insulin secretion. This affects the body through setting it resistant to insulin control and highly sensitive to insulin levels.
iii. Gestational diabetes mellitus occurs during pregnancy. This form of diabetes is not clear, evident diabetes.
iv. Genetic diabetes, on the other hand is caused by defects on the genetic composition of an individual. Such defects may affect the functioning of the cells within the body, hence rendering them unable to maintain the homeostatic balance. Besides, the genetic defects may affect the insulin action in the body, thereby subjecting a person to fluctuation in the blood sugar levels. In addition, this form of diabetes may result from such diseases as exocrine pancreas, and may be induced by chemicals and drugs used in the treatment of certain diseases such as HIV/AIDS.
Diagnostic test of choice for Diabetes
Diabetes has a variety of diagnosis methods. The A1C test is a diagnostic measure that establishes the average level of glucose in the blood for a period range of between two and three months. While using this diagnosis, however, patients are not subject to involuntary fasting and thirst. Using this diagnosis, diabetes is confirmed if the A1C is greater or equal to 6.5%. In light of this diagnosis, people with A1C less than 5.7% are regards as normal, therefore, are free of diabetes. On the other hand, a reading that ranges between 5.7% and 6.4% are considered pre-diabetics. Doctors advise these people on the basic therapy to avoid diabetes through regular exercising and subsequent change of diet.
Most common form of diabetes
Type 2 diabetes or hyperglycemia is the most common type of diabetes. This disease subjects the blood sugars in the body to higher than normal levels. Patients who suffer from this disease have bodies that do not use insulin in the proper way, hence rendering them resistant to insulin. Type 2 diabetes has potential significance of reducing the life expectancy of a patient. An increased level of sugar within the body causes numerous conditions for the body (DeVries, 2013). The onset of type 2 diabetes makes the metabolic conditions of the body to stall, hence putting the patient at risk of hypertension and other heart-related diseases. This disease also comes with a myriad of micro vascular complications. While administering the care plan for patients with type 2 diabetes, doctors use a number of treatment options ranging from oral therapies in combination with a wide range of interventions that aim at lowering the level of insulin in the blood (Garber, 2009).
References
Battise, D. (2014). Efficacy and Safety of Canagliflozin as Add-On Therapy to Metformin in Type 2 Diabetes.&nbsp.Clinical Diabetes,&nbsp.32(2), 81-86. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diaclin.32.2.81
DeVries, J. (2013). Intensive insulin therapy for type 2 diabetes at diagnosis.&nbsp.The Lancet Diabetes &amp. Endocrinology,&nbsp.1(1), 3-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s2213-8587(13)70001-9
Dyson, P. (2015). Low Carbohydrate Diets and Type 2 Diabetes: What is the Latest Evidence?.&nbsp.Diabetes Ther. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13300-015-0136-9
Garber, A. (2009). Restaging insulin therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes.&nbsp.Diabetes, Obesity And Metabolism,&nbsp.11, 1-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-1326.2009.01136.x
Kuritzky, L., &amp. Samraj, G. (2011). Enhanced glycemic control with combination therapy for type 2 diabetes in primary care.&nbsp.Diabetes Ther,2(3), 162-177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13300-011-0006-z
Yoshioka, K. (2013). Efficacy of Initial Basal-Supported Oral Therapy with Sitagliptin in Untreated Type 2 Diabetes.&nbsp.Diabetes Ther,&nbsp.4(2), 409-416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13300-013-0043-x