Public Policy Formation and Analysis

According to Lindblom in 1959 stated that there are certain identifiable barriers to significant Policy Change. For purposes of clarity and professionalism, I will both paraphrase and project these barriers in the way that will benefit a layman. The barriers are due to the fact that the process of making/formulating policies is tough. Neither social scientist, politicians nor even public administrators know everything about the social world we inhabit, so much as to avoid making mistakes/errors in predicting the accuracy or consequences of policy moves. This is the major barrier. (79-88)
Thus, the only wisdom that is inherent in policy making, therefore, involves achieving in small parts so as to avoid huge mistakes. Because mistakes in policy decisions are another barrier. So by utilizing the incremental method especially in the areas of Budgeting, the administrator can always adjust/review those policies knowing that the solution lies in gradual steps. Another barrier to policy change is the fact that successful policy changes could only be achieved in steps. If one step fails, the entire process is taken back and the policy is rejected by the public and society, but the successful completion and execution of the first step will quickly lead to a second step. This is usually practiced in democratic Nations like the USA. (86)
Thus for significant policy change to occur, a few aspects of the process must be considered and sorted out i.e there must be a level of comprehensiveness in the policy so as to accommodate various agencies, policy change must have a degree of relevance and realism as is practised in Democratic states and there must be continuous comparisons which are typical of the branch method. Also, a line of compromise must be attained between the theorist and practitioners.
Multiple Streams according to Zahariadis is a lens or approach that explains how policies are made. This theory was propounded by Kingdon in 1995 and has become a widely speculated formulation policy framework worthy of discussion. This framework deals with agenda setting and alternative speculation.