Rise and fall of American labor unions



This kind of project is non-routine work that is not done regularly. A project has duration. Example, the project of basketball construction has duration of two months. Project needs Resources. Project needs, men, materials, time and money to finish the basketball court. Resources are scarce. So, if the organization wants to finish the project, they have to make a budget estimate within which to finish the work. 1.2. Planning and organization. The purpose of planning is to determine the best possible way of achieving specified objective within the specified period of time and costs. It is a technique that aims at maximum utilization of resources. Every person, organization or a government entity has plans. For example, Martha has plans to build a house, the neighborhood plans to build a club house, and the government plans to build a connecting highway. In all of these plans, the elements of project management are important. These are planning, scheduling, implementation, control and monitoring. These are easily done with small projects, but gets difficult and complex when it comes to big projects like government projects. A basketball court construction is simpler in details than a government road project. 1.4 Project appraisal and financing Financing is the significant link between the project and implementation because no matter how good or feasible the project in terms of technical and economics, it cannot work without money. The problem concerns of the project is not only measuring the financial needs but to be assured of financing, where and when needed. This usually entails a loan proposal, and identifying sources of financing. The proponent or organization could resort to borrowings from banks or institutions for private entity. or if it is a government project, funds may come from general appropriations, grants or loan from government banks or rely on foreign loans. In our example, funds for the purpose may come from donations. 1.5 Project life cycle A project has a life cycle. It starts with the conception stage. It is the time when the idea started. Next is the design stage – this is where designs of the project area are presented. usually a committee appraises the appropriateness of the design. Then we have implementation – this is the time of actual work. and the commissioning stage that marks end of project. Going back to project, idea came from the Youth Association, and the design could come from another group who will design, next is a group that finances and implements the project. Last stage is the ending of the project or turn over. 1.6 Organizational workflow, staffing processes and project planning elements Workflow is defined as a sequence of steps that consists of work process involving two or more persons that adds value to the organization’s activities.2 Workflow has two processes, the sequential and parallel work flow. The former is dependent on the occurrence of the previous steps, while the latter allows two or more steps concurrently. Staffing process. A project requires manpower, and for this purpose, there is a need to establish manpower inventory. First step to staffing is to plan for a manpower inventory in order to match manpower requirements and demand3. Afterwards, other processes follow like recruitment, selection, orientation and placement. and remuneration. A short project does not necessarily involve promotion and