Robotic Surgery

Most industrialized nations, like the United States, have only been defined as industrialized for a less than 200 years, yet look how far technology, engineering, and the world of science as a whole. We interact and depend upon technology today so much that we hardly even notice that it is there anymore. (Schwartz Cohen, 2012) Robotics are one of those ever-advancing and ever-innovating scientific and technological fields. Amongst the robotics fields, the robotic surgery is still young but is not exactly new. Robotic surgeries have been practiced for several decades. In 1985 a robotic surgical system was used to perform a neurosurgical biopsy and in 1987 it was used to perform a cholecystectomy. In 1990 it was granted approval by the Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, which allowed robotic surgical systems to be used to perform endoscopic procedures. (Wolinsky, 2013) There are a few companies who have developed, or are presently developing, robotic surgery systems, but it is the da Vinci Surgical System that appears to be standing out among all of the competing concepts. The da Vinci is a considered a breakthrough in its field. It features four remote-controlled arms that the operating surgeon uses a combination of hand and foot controls. The system, as seen in the photographs below, also, features an, extremely, sophisticated camera, offering a 3-Dimensional field of view, and the promises the greatest possible precision and visibility. (Carreyrou, 2010).Today the da Vinci surgical system can be found in a multiple hospitals all over the world. They are highlighted as the primary option for gynecological, prostatic, and certain cardiovascular surgeries. The costs of the systems are quite high, with an initial cost of $1 million to $2 million to install the equipment into the hospital for use. The same robotic surgical systems can cost, approximately, $140,000 just for basic monthly maintenance and an additional $1500-$2000 necessary for the replacement of needed parts. Although, robotic surgery has been involved a number of instances where patients have been injured or have died after having had a robotic surgical procedure.