Social and Economic Development

The paper shows that the given issues are the major guidelines that any urban planner must adhere to since they affect both the firms and the households (Calthorpe &amp. Fulton, 2001).
Every urban planner and developer has to take into consideration land zoning policies that in most cases, map the different land uses in a city. For example, these land zones indicate where the industries are to be located, where the central business district is to be situated or what land is designated for which public utilities. Furthermore, they must be very careful when determining the value of any land zone as a different user will be willing to pay different prices for their utilization. The bid rent function is major determinants of land rent and prices (Calthorpe &amp. Fulton, 2001). This is because it illustrates how a firm or household is willing to pay for land at different distances from the market place mostly the central business district.
Urban planners must put into consideration pitfalls like the differentiating between public goods and private goods as well as the issue of externalities. Moreover, issues like education, water, and sewerage service provisions, transport networks to the CBD to avoid traffic congestion and provision of health services to the urban population should be well planned to avoid future conflict between the urban dwellers and the local government. Furthermore, proper taxation mechanisms should be structured and well outlined as this is the major source of income for these local governments and without the development and maintenance of the already existing infrastructures would be paralyzed or fail completely.