Spread of disease

Spread of disease History and political science Evolution of Theories about Germs and Infection Evolution of germs and disease can be traced back to the ancient Greek where Hippocrates a famous philosopher came up with the humoral theory as the cause of disease. Hippocrates was against the religious theory of disease that existed prior t his humoral notion since he disputed the opinion that epilepsy could be treated by appeasing the gods. Through his humoral theory, he aimed at developing a naturalistic approach to spread of infection as he attributed epilepsy to be caused by excess in one of the body fluids he postulated had to be in equilibrium for absence of disease. The humoral theory was the hub of cause of disease in the European world till it was phased off by the germ theory that was first conceived in the sixteenth century. It took three centuries for the germ theory to be completely developed and it was accepted in the nineteenth century (Thargard, 1997).Great Leaders Starting 1800s to Present Robert Koch made the first discovery of the cause of disease where he postulated bacterium as the cause of tuberculosis in 1882. In 1932, Prontosil drug was discovered by Gerhard Domagk as the drug that could eradicate the microbe that Koch had stipulated. Moreover, in 1944, streptomycin was discovered and proved to be the most efficient treatment in killing the microbe. This served as the genesis of treatment regimes which are currently aimed at treating the symptom, eradicating the cause, and changing the course of the disease hence altering the spread of the disease (Thargard, 1997).How Latest Technology Has Offered A More Sustainable Approach to SanitationLatest technology in the twentieth century has led to a more pragmatic approach to spread of disease since it has led to the discovery of nutritional, genetic and immunological causes of disease. The discovery of these aspects has made individuals learn the roles that nutrition plays in preventing spread of disease and also the immunological aspects that sanitation plays in preventing the spread of disease. Genetically, sanitation has progressed since it has aided in the discovery of how some aspect in an individual predisposes them more to acquire infection compared to other individuals. Consequently, knowledge of the immune system has led to the development of vaccines that aid in the protecting the spread of disease. Inventions have also been made in treatment modalities like laser, surgeries, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy all aimed in preventing the spread of disease (Thargard, 1997).Key Figures and Their ContributionHippocrates a Greek philosopher existed between 430 and 330 B.C. He was a key player in the spread of disease theory since he coined the humoral theory that served as a reference point to disease prior to the evolution of the germ theory. An Italian physician known as Fracastoro is a as a key player in the spread of disease since he was the first to write down about the contagion in 1546. He did not abandon the humoral theory but rather added how different humors had different affinities to cause and spread disease and he used syphilis as an example. Robert Koch, Louis Pauster, Lister and other philosophers were key contributors to the modern germ theory since their various researches between 1860 and 1870 led to the acceptability of the modern germ theory as the ideal theory of spread of disease. Louis was keen to observe how the yeast in milk fermented and attributed fermentation to spread of infection. Lister a physician used Lois concept to sterilize infected wounds using carbolic acid that saw a reduction in infection prevalence. Koch stipulated mycobacterium as the cause of tuberculosis and other causative agents (Thargard, 1997).ReferencesThargard, P. (1997), The Concept of Disease: Structure and Change, Waterloo, Ontario. Accessed on January 24, 2012 from http://cogsci.uwaterloo.ca/Articles/Pages/Concept.html