Teacher Collaboration and Academic Achievement

The emergence of PLCs could be traced to different scholars: DuFour and Eacker, Joyce and Showers (2002), Lieberman (1999), and Senge, et.al. (2000), whose works focus on learning organizations, learning communities, through methods, tools and structures that aim to improve schools in contemporary societies (PLCs: Brief history, n.d.).The contentions of DuFour (1998) focus on identification of characteristics of PLCs, to wit: 1) shared mission, vision, and values, 2) collective inquiry, 3) collaborative teams, 4) action orientation and experimentation, 5) continuous improvement, and a 6) results orientation (PLCs: Brief history, n.d., 1). Related research by Lieberman (1999) indicates, ‘ the concept of professional community is one of the most powerful ideas affecting research and practice in staff development in the last decade. Lieberman relates to professional learning communities in terms of networks (ibid.)However, Rose (2008) clearly indicates that although there is widespread use of terms (professional learning communities or professional learning teams) and concepts, these mean different things to different audiences. There is no consistent definition (Rose, 2008, 11). This statement was validated in another research conducted by Kilpatrick, Barret and Jones (n.d.) who averred that the term learning communities as this statement is revealed, the current literature review hereby sought to gather definitions of PLC and determine….
(2000), whose works focus on learning organizations, learning communities, through methods, tools and structures that aim to improve schools in contemporary societies (PLCs: Brief history, n.d.). The contentions of DuFour (1998) focus on identification of characteristics of PLCs, to wit: 1) shared mission, vision, and values, 2) collective inquiry, 3) collaborative teams, 4) action orientation and experimentation, 5) continuous improvement, and a 6) results orientation (PLCs: Brief history, n.d., 1). Related research by Lieberman (1999) indicates, ‘ the concept of professional community is one of the most powerful ideas affecting research and practice in staff development in the last decade. Lieberman relates to professional learning communities in terms of networks (ibid.) However, Rose (2008) clearly indicates that although there is widespread use of terms (professional learning communities or professional learning teams) and concepts, these mean different things to different audiences. There is no consistent definition (Rose, 2008, 11). This statement was validated in another research conducted by Kilpatrick, Barret and Jones (n.d.) who averred that the term learning communities is used variously within the literature, often without explicit definition (Kilpatrick, et.al, n.d, 3). Insofar as this statement is revealed, the current literature review hereby sought to gather definitions of PLC and determine any ambiguity in content: Reichstetter (2006) defines PLC as made up of team members who regularly collaborate toward continued improvement in meeting learner needs through a shared curricular-focused vision. Richard DuFour