Terminologies Probability. It is an area of mathematics that deals with the calculation of likelihoods of occurrence of events. A statistician uses the knowledge of probability to calculate the chance of an event’s occurrence and expresses it either as a percentage or a number ranging from 0 to 1 (Sharma, 3). The probability, for example, of tossing a coin to give a tail or head is 1, but the probability of tossing the same coin to give a head is 0.5 because the toss can as well give a tail.
Directionality. It refers to how an individual interprets a situation by considering the two factors affecting it. A perfect example is to consider the partial derivative fx (x, y). Directionality, in this case, would be to make a conclusion about how f changes when x is varied while y remains fixed.
Identity: It refers to the uniqueness of an object based on the assigned value. In university elections, for example, different presidential candidates receive varying votes based on their popularity and other factors.
Range. Range simply refers to the difference between the highest and lowest values in a set of numbers. Consider the following numbers 2, 5, 4, 10, 18, 16, 10 and 12. The range is the difference between 18 and 2.
Works Cited
Sharma, A.K. Text Book of Probability and Theoretical Distributions. New Delhi, Inde: Discovery Publishing House, 2005. Print.