The Effect of Personal Characteristics on Negotiation

Miles, Hatfield, and Huseman (1989) identified a spectrum of individuals who have different equity preferences. That’s why in negotiations it could be unreasonable to adhere strictly to Adams’ ‘norm of equity’ because bargainers’ perception of what if ‘fair’ may be arbitrary.
There exist two approaches to buyer-seller encounters in the literature (Bazerman et al., 2000. Barry amp. Friedman, 1998): cooperative and/or problem-solving approach, and distributive and/or competitive. The first type, known also as the integrative approach, presupposes conflict resolution, integration, and information exchange among buyers and sellers (Bazerman et al., 2000. Barry amp. Friedman, 1998. Pruitt, 1981). The competitive or distributive strategy involves threats and excessive demands seek to win concessions at the counterpart’s expense (Barry amp. Friedman, 1998. Perdue amp. Summers, 1991).
Miles, Hatfield, and Huseman (1987) stayed that equity sensitivity is an individual difference that influences how individuals react to inequity. Equity sensitivity is a ‘person’s perception of what is and what is not equity and then uses that information to make predictions about reactions to inequity’ (King, Miles and Day 1993, p.135). For example, on the one end of the continuum, there are the benevolence, or ‘givers’ who express high satisfaction in relation to others when their output/input ratios are less than the comparison other. they have a higher tolerance for under-reward. Also at mid-range, there are the equity sensitives, who most closely adhere to the traditional norm of equity (where inputs and outputs are balanced) (Allen amp. White, 2002). On the other end of the continuum are ‘takers’, who are most satisfied when they receive more outcomes than inputs (King, Miles amp. Day, 1993). According to King, Miles amp. Day (1993), benevolent negotiators, or ‘givers’, won’t provide more inputs, in comparison to their outputs, to their counterparts. In the negotiations, these inputs appear in the form of sharing information, making concessions changes, and discussing preferences among bargaining parties, which are critical elements of the cooperative problem-solving strategy.
Entitled, or ‘takers’ focus on themselves and the outcomes, and are more likely to take action to rectify any imbalance in the input/output ration when compared to their counterparts (Allen amp. White, 2002. Miles, Hatfield, and Huseman, 1989). In the negotiation process, entitled are likely to be less cooperative than their counterparts. So, it could be expected the following strategies to take place:
H1: Benevolent negotiators will demonstrate more cooperative behaviors than entitled negotiators. Because they are more concerned with the outcomes of the bargaining activity and are more likely to follow the cooperative manner of behavior, they place higher importance to intrinsic outcomes such as cooperation (King, Miles amp. Day, 1993). As a result, a positive connection exists between equity sensitivity and negotiators’ perceptions of their cooperative behaviors.