Many HIV positive mothers in developing countries infect their babies with HIV when pregnant, during birth, or during breastfeeding. Most developing countries lack adequate information and measures to help screen expectant women for HIV and intervene timely. Medical research has shown that the risk of an HIV positive mother infecting her baby is between fifteen and forty-five per cent. This research also shows that with timely diagnosis and intervention, mother-to-child transmission of HIV can be lowered to levels less than five per cent. Despite new advances in drugs and treatment that help reduce this risk the technology is expensive and unaffordable for many developing countries. Even so, the high prevalence of mother-to-child HIV transmission in developing countries stems from the high prevalence of HIV infection between adults especially mothers and fathers (Harris 62). HIV infection through blood transfusion is still a problem in developing countries. The high risk of HIV infection stems largely from the negligence on the part of authorities entrusted with the care of blood used for transfusion. Hasty oversight by blood recipients increases the chances of receiving blood infected with HIV. Commentators observe that the gap between the demand and supply of safe blood for transfusion compromises the measures of preventing HIV infection. Only a few people volunteer their blood and some banks peddle unscreened blood. A new challenge to ensuring the safety of blood transfusion is the emergence of private blood banks.