The measurement of arterial and blood pressure

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Korotkoff sounds: A sound heard during the measurement of blood pressure by a sphygmomanometer. The pressure differences created in the cuff results in the turbulence of blood flow which leads to the audible sound known as first Korotkoff sound. Korotkoff sounds can be classified into five types. First heard when the pressure in the cuff is equal to the systolic pressure, second and third can be described as murmurs and tapping sounds respectively. Fourth sound is heard at 10mm above diastolic pressure while the last Korotkoff sound is heard at the precise diastolic pressure.Oscillometric principle: Another method of measuring blood pressure. It makes use of the same instrument but in addition, uses a transducer which gives the oscillation readings of the blood flow. As the pressure in the cuff varies with simultaneous expansion and contraction of brachial artery an oscillation is produced.Hypertension: A medical phenomenon indicating an increased systemic blood pressure. Normal blood pressure is described as ≤ 120 systolic and ≤ 80 diastolic. Generally, it is classified as primary and secondary hypertension with primary meaning with no apparent cause.&nbsp.&nbsp.iv) S1 and S2 heart sounds are produced due to the closure of valves in the heart namely the atrioventricular valves and the semilunar valves. On the other hand, Korotkoff sounds are produced when the pressure in the cuff varies and creates turbulence for the blood flowing through the brachial artery. This the need to differentiate between the two.