The Rehabilitation Process after Acquired Brain Injury

From this study it is clear that the most frequent cause of ABI is trauma and this condition is most prevalent in young adults and adolescents. ABI may occur with a direct high-energy knock to the head or a sudden acceleration or deceleration of the body. The majority of brain mass exists in the left and right cerebral hemispheres above the brainstem and spinal cord. The entire central nervous system is enveloped by the meninges. This membrane is comprised of three layers that include the pia mater, arachnoid mater, and dura mater. A protective fluid layer of cerebrospinal fluid separates the first two layers of the meninges. Though movement of the brain is restricted in the head, it is not directly anchored to the skull and is thus prone to injury during sudden movements or trauma. In addition to blunt force trauma, the brain may be damaged when moving across the irregularities on the internal surface of the skull.
According to the discussion the brain tissue is comprised of varying densities that shift and react to trauma in different ways. During a high-force trauma, the brain shifts in an irregular manner that may result in stretching or shearing of neural tissue. There are three external means in which primary brain injury occurs. The first manner occurs with direct impact of the cranium. The second scenario arises with penetration through the cranium into the brain tissue. The final means of primary damage occurs with the collision between the brain tissue and the internal cranial structure. Acquired brain injury may occur without significant damage to the skull, which is known as a closed injury. In addition to this, cranial damage may occur in the form of a linear fracture, a physical depression into the neural tissue, or perforation from a foreign body. In addition to external primary injury, secondary damage may also occur in acquired brain injury. Both biochemical and mechanical factors contribute to the consequences of secondary damage. When a brain injury occurs, the neural damage and cell death subsequently catalyzes a pathological process that develops into oedema. This abnormal swelling often results in peripheral damage to other neural tissue. The age group at highest risk of acquired brain injury is between 16 and 25 years. While the risk of this condition decreases in middle age, it eventually increases in the elderly population.&nbsp.