United Nations Regional and Specialized Agencies

Order 172990 UN regional and specialized agencies The United Nations has five regional agencies that address the economic and social problems that are common or pervasive in a particular region, and promote cooperation to make international agreements possible. The UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) brings together countries not only from Europe but those from North America as well as economic groupings such as the European Union, NAFTA and the Commonwealth of Independent States. The UN Economic &amp. Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) mainly helps the countries of the region with regards to poverty alleviation, education, social rebuilding, infrastructure building and environment protection. The UN Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) addresses the economic and social needs of the continent and acts as a network of African organizations. The Economic Commission for Latin America &amp. the Carribean (UNECLAC) through its research programs promotes economic social and economic development in the region. The Economic &amp. Social Commission for Western Asia (UNESCWA) is the smallest of the regional agencies with only 13-member states which promotes the economic and social activities of the UN in the region.
The United Nations have seven major specialized agencies, which together with the UN are collectively known as the United Nations system. The International Labor Organization (ILO), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the World Health Organization have their own by-rules, principles and goals and are autonomous with regards to their budgets and appointment of directors outside the jurisdiction of the General Assembly or the Secretary General. In addition, being financial institutions, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund are considered to be the most powerful and most independent from the UN.
Nature of bi-lateral relations and military pacts
The nature of bilateral relations in the context of international politics or diplomacy rests on the mutual understanding between two states or countries. Relations may cover areas in terms of political, economic, military and cultural exchanges. Bilateralism is differentiated from other types of international relations such as multilateralism, which is the policy followed by the UN system or the World Trade Organization and regionalism which can be seen in the formation of such groups such as NAFTA, EU, APEC, etc. On the other hand, a state is said to act unilaterally when it acts on its own.
Most diplomacy is still currently done bilaterally as when two states sign treaties, exchange ambassadors, and pave the way for state visits of the chief executives of the two countries concerned (Wikepedia n.p.). While multilateralism is popular on the surface, with such organizations such as the United Nations or WTO, there is little enforcement or follow-through with implementation with multilateral set-ups. Bilateral relations on the other hand are quite binding and yet flexible when only two parties or states are concerned. Military pacts can be done bilaterally when two states agree to certain terms that may include mutual defense in case of conflict, joint military exercises, and establishment of troops and military bases of one country to another. On the other hand, military pacts are also done regionally or between allies from different regions to counter other military pacts. An example of these is the NATO or the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

Sources:
"Regional Agencies". 01 June 2007 "United Nations Specialized Agencies". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 01 June 2007
"Bilateralism". Wikipedia. 01 June 2007