Other studies have reported earlier that this remains under-reported due to social stigma, and men may be too embarrassed to consult their doctors regarding this. It is known that many cases of urinary incontinence are transient, brought on by infection, immobility or acute disease (Dingwall, 2008, 166-172). However, many other cases result from chronic conditions that persist until intervention through proper treatment and bladder management strategies allowing social continence are instituted. It is also recognized that the prevalence of incontinence increases with age. This is, therefore, a very common problem, which usually does not come into medical attention for the reasons described above. Education, training, support, and voiding training can be effective nonmedical interventions that may help these patients (Cooper and Watt, 2003, 305-313). Since the emergency department is an area where these patients frequently present with acute problems associated with the urinary tract, this may be an area of health promotion nursing intervention to these patients, which would tend to promote continence. To find out the rationale of this proposal, it was decided that a critical literature review would be done, and a literature search was conducted.
Literature Search: For the purpose of the preliminary review of the literature to support the rationale, need, and continuation of the project, an exhaustive literature search was conducted. Electronic databases such as CINHAL, Medline and Pubmed along with the Google Scholar Internet Search engine and HigWire Press were looked for. The key words that were used for the search were “continence”, “incontinence”, “urinary incontinence”, “nurse practitioner”, “promotion”, “acute care”, “education”, “health promotion”, “nursing care”, and “nursing.” The inclusion criteria for these articles were that these would have to be research articles, preferably nursing oriented, but not necessarily, .include continence, incontinence, and continence promotion in acute care nursing practice, must be published within last 6 years and would have some indication about United Kingdom population. .