Ways authors organize information in texts Analysis Break the subject (an object, event, or concept) down into parts and explain the various parts. “Why?” “How?” “So what?” “What if?” What it might mean is, how it relates to what is known, the implications it offers, in other words, my point is, to put it another way, Cause and Effect Explain both events and ideas. The cause is the stimulus or reason for an event or idea. The effect is the result or consequence of the even or idea. So, because, cause, comes from, due to, if, on account of, reasons, since, stems from, accordingly, according to affect, as a result, consequence, consequently, creates, effect, hence, leads to, result, then, therefore, thus Compare and contrast Compare two or more items by describing how they are similar; contrast two or more items by explaining their differences; or, provide both the similarities and the differences for a number of items. Comparison: alike, as well as, both, similarly, likewise, in the same way, analogous to, correspondingly, identical, equivalent Contrast: alternatively, although, but, contrast, conversely, despite, differs from, however, in contrast, less, more, on the contrary, on the other hand, still, unlike, -er suffix (e.g., higher, better, newer) Concession/refutation Offer the opposition’s viewpoint and then tell why it is incorrect/inadequate/unimportant Author states . . .; however, . . . . Author believes . . ., but . . . . Critique Point out both the good and bad points of something. Definition Give an accurate meaning of a term with enough detail to allow the reader to understand your intention when you use the term. Means, is, refers to, is called, can be defined Description Write about the subject so the reader can easily visualize it; tell how it looks or happened, including how, who, where, why. Diagram Make a drawing of something and label its parts. Discussion Give a complete and detailed answer, including important characteristics and main points. Division and classification Divide a whole into parts or sort related items into categories. Class, classified, category, divided into, group, kind, parts, type Evaluation Give your opinion of the value of the subject; discuss its good and bad points, strengths and weaknesses. Exemplification Provide examples or cases in points: facts, statistics, cases in point, personal experiences, interview quotations. Such as, for example, for instance Explanation Give the meaning of something; give facts and details that make the idea easy to understand. Illustration Make the point or idea clear by giving examples. Interpretation Tell about the importance of the subject. Explain the results or the effects of something. Justification Give good reasons that support a decision, action, or event. List Make an organized listing of the important points of a subject. Also, another, besides, equally important is, finally, further, furthermore, first, second, in addition, last, moreover, several Narration Recount an event; tell a story. Overview Describe the issue, including the various viewpoints Process order Explain how to do something or how something happens. After, afterward, as finally, first, second, last, next, then, when, while Question and Answer Ask a question to focus the writing on a specific topic and then answer the question. Report Write a detailed account of activities or events such as research or a conversation. Summary Briefly cover the main points. Article, book, concluded, found, in conclusion, in short, investigation, then, therefore, to review, to summarize, research, study subjects Trace Tell about an event or process in chronological order. After, afterward, as finally, first, second, last, next, then, when, while Definitions taken from Kate Kinsella, “Instructions Used in Academic Reading and Writing”; Laura Ellen Shulman, “Rhetorical Strategies for Essay Writing”; Linda A. Lee, Empowered College Reading.